By Lisa Baglione
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Additional info for To Agree or Not to Agree: Leadership, Bargaining, and Arms Control
CHAPTER 2 Conflicting Strategies and Inconclusive Discussions: Khrushchev, Eisenhower, and the Test Ban Talks From 1945 to 1960, the superpowers conducted 258 atmospheric tests of nuclear devices as they sought to enhance the power and destructive capability of their arsenals. 1 Scientific evidence began to mount during that time, however, that these experiments were harming the health of the world's people. In 1957, several prominent individuals, including lawaharlal Nehru, Albert Schweitzer, and Pope Pius XII, called for an end to nuclear testing as world public opinion was similarly turning against the policy of open-air explosions.
In each instance, we will see that the leadership model better predicts the strategy that the United States and the Soviet Union followed at the negotiating table. The executive-constituent link accounts for changes in the bargaining approach, as less autonomous leaders were compelled to incorporate concerns of others into the national position and autonomous ones shifted that strategy to their preferred position. Executives who were independent from the outset were able to pursue the policy that followed from their assessment of the international situation.
Leadership. Bargaining. and Arms Control 19 But viewing the negotiating process and outcome as a transaction was not the only possible conception a leader, strong or weak, could have. Executives could also reinterpret the nature of the opponent's intentions, the meaning of national security, and their own alternatives. Such leaders then could engage in transformational strategies that redefined security and the superpower relationship. While transactional approaches could be pursued at any time in the leader's tenure, an executive could confidently put forward transformational ones only when he was significantly autonomous, because these strategies were contrary to the prevailing definitions of national security, the ideological stance and bureaucratic interests of the most powerful institutional actors, and the public understanding of the relationship between the superpowers.