By William A. Hustrulid, Michael K. McCarter, Dirk J. A. Van Zyl
As we input the twenty-first century, mines are being deliberate to arrive depths of greater than 1,100 meters, waste rock embankments have handed six hundred meters in top, tailings dams have reached heights of two hundred meters, and heap leach amenities have crowned a hundred and fifty meters. the rush towards larger, deeper, and steeper, besides the bigger and extra effective gear in use at the present time, maintains to check our instruments and capabilities.
Slope balance in floor Mining files the innovative upward thrust in technical figuring out and class within the box. merely be consistently accumulating and changing info can layout thoughts, development tools, tracking innovations, and reclamation practices preserve speed with the days. Slope balance in floor Mining creates a typical platform on which to base right, budget friendly, and secure slope layout and building decisions.
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Extra resources for Slope stability in surface mining
Cell Width and Height. The recorded width and height should not include obscured or nonmappable areas of the cell. For example, if the lower 3 m of a 15-m bench are covered by muck, a cell height of only 12 m is recorded. When mapping in outcrops or partially covered road cuts, estimates of the average width and height of the exposure is made. Rock Type. The two or three dominant rock types in the cell are listed in descending order of percent occurrence. Ideally, an individual detail cell should not cross major (relative to pit-scale) lithologic contacts or major faults, since fracture characteristics and orientations may differ in large bodies composed of distinct rock types or fault-bound blocks.
V = vertical spacing (counting line projected vertically, perpendicular to the strike of the bench face), usually implemented for flat-lying structures. 1 Individual Structures Versus Structure Sets When individual structures, such as a discrete fault, a vein, or a single joint, are recorded, only the strike, dip, minimum dip, length (the maximum length equals the length in this case), thickness, and filling type(s) should be recorded. When structural trends are visibly indicated, but open fractures are not present, only the strike and dip of these features are recorded.
Level maps can be used to determine vertical and lateral continuity of major structures as the mine development expands. Regional structures should be extended along strike to the limits of the level maps so that they can be easily plotted on all future pit plans. The database can be used for statistical analysis for the intermediate structures. Relatively short structures that comprise the rock fabric are too numerous to map and analyze individually, so they must be mapped with techniques that provide the appropriate input parameters for statistical analysis.