By F. Strocchi

This publication presents a readable account of the rules of QFT, specifically of the Euclidean formula with emphasis at the interaction among actual specifications and mathematical constructions. the overall constructions underlying the normal neighborhood (renormalizable) formula of gauge QFT are mentioned additionally at the foundation of straightforward versions. The mechanism of confinement, non-trivial topology and θ-vacua, chiral symmetry breaking and answer of the U(1) challenge are clarified via a cautious research of the Schwinger version, which settles uncertain or debated issues.

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In terms of broadband services, the current focus of research and development is on servicing a range of user demands and reducing regional disparities in service levels. We discussed optical access technology for broadband services in the form of the GE-PON system, installation technology, and wireless access technology, and analyzed NTT’s research and development with respect to the broadband environment. Finally, we looked at the development of network access technologies for future broadband services.

However, given the low-loss characteristics of single-mode fiber and its suitability for broadband applications, it was definitely the correct decision for the future. The introduction of single-mode fiber was made possible through the development of new technology in a number of areas. In particular, these developments related to high-precision HISTORY OF OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY IN JAPAN 3 manufacturing (using a process known as total synthesis), the more economical production of long-wavelength light sources, photoreceptors, and fiber interconnection and installation techniques that enabled optical fiber cable to be laid more efficiently.

The results illustrate the variation of loss over the bandpass of interest for PON systems.

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