By Lawrence Ziring

During this probing booklet, a number one safeguard specialist supplies the interior tale of Pakistan, telling of a rustic torn aside by means of catastrophic civil wars, ruled by way of the bullish army dictatorship of common Musarraf and suffering opposed to the expansion of extremist Islam.

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Additional info for Pakistan: At the Crosscurrent of History

Sample text

He also saw the Mahatma’s action in pressing Nehru to the head of the Congress as either a clever ruse as cover for his own pre-eminence, or a failure of judgment. Jinnah later acknowledged his error. Thirty million people cast ballots in the 1937 election, thirty percent representing Muslim choices. When the votes were tallied the Muslim League was almost eliminated as a competitive organization. Under the separate electorate system the Muslim League garnered no more than five percent of the Muslim votes.

Not willing to accept yet another failure, the Cabinet Mission and the Viceroy presented their own plan for the transfer of power. Their plan called for a Union of India that embodied all of the country, including the princely states. The Union would be responsible for foreign affairs, defense, communications, and finance, and its executive institution and legislature would be constituted along parliamentary lines. Questions arising in the legislature involving the communal issue would have to be resolved by a majority of the representatives from both the Hindu and Muslim communities, as well as a majority of all members present and voting.

Gandhi reiterated his belief that the imperial status quo could never be the objective of the war and that Congress could only reconsider its anti-war policy if Britain agreed to a date for its withdrawal from the subcontinent. The British government had long suffered Gandhi’s stubborn behavior, but it now judged the Mahatma’s inflexibility a threat to its war effort. Gandhi, however, refused to yield to entreaties or counter-threats or fear of imprisonment. He was convinced the time was right for India to regain its independence.

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