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The solution or suspension is extremely dilute. 3. The liquid medium is continuous compared with the dimensions of the particle. This assumption is valid for the motion of colloidal particles, but not for that of small molecules or ions which are comparable in size with the molecules constituting the liquid medium. For spherical colloidal particles undergoing sedimentation, diffusion or electrophoresis, deviations from Stokes' law usually amount to much less than 1 per cent and can be neglected.

2) passing through a dispersion and separating regions of concentration Ci and c2, where c\ > c2. Let the average Brownian displacement of a given particle perpendicular to AB be x in time t. For each particle, this displacement has equal probability of being 'left to right' or 'right to left'. The net mass of particles displaced from left to right across unit area of AB in time t is, therefore given by —2 m— 2x dc „.. e. , where m is the particle mass. 3). Since D = k77/, the ratio D/D(} (where D is the experimental diffusion coefficient and D0 is the diffusion coefficient of a system containing the equivalent unsolvated spheres) is equal to the Kinetic properties 29 reciprocal of the ffictional ratio ///0.

The extent of diffusion can be determined by any analytical method. 15) / where A is the cross-section of pores, and / is the effective length of pores. The ratio All is determined by calibrating the apparatus with a substance of known diffusion coefficient. This method has considerable advantages over the free boundary methods with regard to experimental procedure. Possible objections to the method are: (a) the calibration of the cell with material of different relative molecular mass and/or shape from the material under investigation is not necessarily valid; and (b) entrapment of air bubbles in the pores or adsorption of the diffusing molecules on the pore walls will invalidate the results.

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