By Erle C. Donaldson

Rocks mechanics legend Erle Donaldson, in addition to colleagues Waqi Alam and Nasrin Begum from the oil and fuel advisor corporation Tetrahedron, have authored this instruction manual on up-to-date basics and more moderen expertise used in the course of a typical hydraulic fracturing method. intended for technical and non-technical pros drawn to the topic of hydraulic fracturing, the booklet offers a transparent and easy rationalization of the know-how and comparable concerns to advertise the secure improvement of petroleum reserves resulting in power independence through the world.

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Additional resources for Hydraulic Fracturing Explained. Evaluation, Implementation, and Challenges

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After removal of the cement inside the surface casing, a smaller diameter bit is used to drill to the formation to be used for waste 34 Chapter 2 Evaluation of Gas-Shale Formations Figure 2–3 Design of a typical open hole disposal well for protection of useful aquifers. Water pressure in the annulus monitored for leaks. 5 Well Design from Surface to Reservoir 35 injection or production of hydrocarbons. Casing is inserted and centered then the annulus of the second casing is cemented across zones that contain brine under pressure that would channel downward to the injection (or producing) formation through the annulus and interfere with injection of waste, or production of gas and oil.

This confines the fracture to the formation of interest. The length of the fracture away from the wellbore also may be stopped by fall-out and accumulation of proppant at the bottom of the fracture. The growth of the fracture will stop altogether when injection is stopped, or when the leak-off of frac-fluid into the formation becomes equal to the rate of fluid that is being injected. When it is determined that sufficient proppant has been injected to maintain the well at the desired rate of production, the process is stopped.

However, the fracturing fluid can contaminate the groundwater if the integrity of the surface facilities where the fluids are mixed and stored is compromised and there is spillage or leakage on the ground that could percolate into the groundwater or flow into a surface water body (such as a stream) from whence it can be recharged into the groundwater. 7 Environmental Issues Related to Hydraulic Fracturing 21 Contamination of groundwater can be an irreversible damage to an underground water reservoir.

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