By Andy Green

Britain used to be the final significant eu country to create a countrywide schooling process and is decided to be the 1st to dismantle it. during this wide-ranging comparative research, Andy eco-friendly examines the explanations for the asymmetric improvement of public schooling in England, Prussia, France and the us.

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Additional resources for Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA

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The idea was developed in the materialist psychology of Hartley and Condillac, which asserted the optimistic belief that the human mind could be shaped by education, if only it proceeded methodically, recognizing the cardinal principle that the memory functions by association. 8 What transformed this psychological potential into a desirable human goal of general enlightenment through education was the long radical tradition which claimed that education was a human and political right. This clearly owed more to French revolutionary thought than to English empiricism, and finds only a weak echo in the utilitarianism of Mill and Bentham, but it was taken up powerfully in the radical writing of Tom Paine, William Godwin and William Lovett, who offered the clearest English articulation of the principle of education as a tool of human emancipation and a 'right of man'.

According to Durkheim education had two major functions. One was to provide the skills needed for industrial economies. The other, which was more essential, was to act as a vehicle of social integration through the transmission of culture. Like the British Political Economists, Durkheim was concerned, above all, with the problem of social order, but he roundly rejected English individualism and the notion that social solidarity might inhere in the individual pursuit of self-interest in the free market.

Mass education developed first and fastest in the Protestant countries of northern Europe, and in the Puritan states of north-eastern United States. The primary impetus for this development came from the early recognition of Protestants, from the Reformation onwards, of the powers of education as a vehicle of proselytization. The enormous educational advances of the nineteenth century were a product of this early impulse, coupled with the intellectual thrust of the Enlightenment, and of the gradual secular movement towards political democracy, under the banner of liberal capitalism, during the nineteenth century.

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