By Reinhard Tidecks
Ranging from the early experiments, this distinctive presentation, containing greater than 500 references, presents a accomplished overview on current-induced nonequilibrium phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional superconductors, prime the reader from the basics to the newest learn effects. Experiments on monocrystalline filaments (whiskers) - together with these bought by way of the writer - are in comparison with effects on lengthy skinny movie microbridges and similar species and interpreted in the theoretical framework. directions on experimental thoughts are given and but unresolved difficulties are mentioned. The booklet is easily suitable as an creation for the amateur and as a instruction manual for the energetic researcher.
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Additional info for Current-induced Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Quasi One-dimensional Superconductors (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics)
However, as far as a comparison with experiments has been done a b e t t e r agreement with the theory of Schmid and Sch~in (as discussed above) has been obtained [56, 83, 85, 94]. In earlier work the relaxation time tQ of the quasiparticle n u m b e r branch imbalance Q has been calculated [63, 102, 103] and considered in c o n n e c t i o n with the relaxation of differences of the electrochemical p o t e n t i a l s of quaslparticles and pairs [16, 17, 63, 70, 1043. A truer view is that the relaxation of charge imbalance Q* governs the relaxation of the electrochemical p o t e n t i a l s [65, 66, 80, 1053.
Detecting [1 one would obtain this potential difference only for potential probes placed far away from the nonequilibrium region, where Q*=O. E_within the s u p e r c o n d u c t o r is given by (for " = 0 ) E = -~O) = - ( 1 / e ) _ V ( - g p + g ~ + Q / 2 e N o) = - _STQ*/2eZNo (5S) A s i t u a t i o n where q~= 0 and, thus, Vp is c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t the s u p e r c o n d u c t o r is realized if a normal c u r r e n t p e n e t r a t e s the s u p e r c o n d u c t o r at a normal c o n d u c t o r / s u p e r c o n d u c t o r (NC/SC) interface.
They obtained a time t h a t close to To is equal to the charge imbalance relaxation time %. (SO) of ref. (17) of ref. 80, and p. 452 of ref. 81). Ea) (60) Here, z s is the elastic spin-flip scattering time, D=2vF/3 is the diffusion c o n s t a n t and v~ the superfluid velocity. Furthermore, z E=zE=0(To0) is the 36 lifetime of e l e c t r o n s in the normal s t a t e at the Fermi level i~F (']E = 0 ' ) and at Tr due to e l e c t r o n - p h o n o n collisions [803 ( ' i n e l a s t i c collision t i m e ' ).