By L. Attwood
The 'new Soviet individual' the Bolsheviks have been dedicated to making was once to be a qualitatively diversified variety to that which existed lower than capitalism: a creature prepared and wanting to subordinate his or her personal pursuits to these of society. either women and men could play a whole position within the building of socialism, however the version of the 'new girl' had an extra characteristic - she additionally needed to reproduce the inhabitants. Balancing paintings and relations didn't end up effortless, particularly opposed to the heritage of moving financial and demographic priorities, and periodic adjustments needed to be made. This booklet explores the ways that the 'new woman', in her quite a few incarnations, was once awarded to woman electorate from the Nineteen Twenties to the top of the Stalin period within the pages of the preferred women's magazines, Rabotnitsa (The lady employee) and Krest'yanka (The Peasant Woman).
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Additional resources for Creating the New Soviet Woman: Women's Magazines as Engineers of Female Identity, 1922-53 (Studies in Russian & East European history & society)
15 Many women who were abandoned in pregnancy had little choice but to abandon their babies in turn, who joined the swelling ranks of the besprizorniki, or homeless children. There were several million of these roaming the country by 1923, 16 congregating in the cities, joining together in delinquent gangs and surviving on whatever they could steal. The 1918 code on marriage and the family prohibited adoption of homeless children, mainly to prevent peasants from using orphaned children as a source of slave labour, but also to enable the state to practice its ideas about socialised upbringing on these children.
In its more candid articles Rabotnitsa did acknowledge that there was a major accommodation crisis in the cities, and that communal living often amounted to people being forced to live together, in hostels or barracks, out of necessity rather than choice. 42 In one town, it observed: ‘There is a barracks in which three families huddle together in each box room [kamorka], with five or more people to every family. Quarrels often arise between different members of a family, and then war breaks out between all of the inhabitants of the room.
Women’s magazines were also assigned a crucial role in winning women over to Bolshevism. 10 The magazine folded when the First World War broke out, was briefly revived between May 1917 and January 1918, and then brought to a halt by the paper shortage during the Civil War. For a time its function was taken over by ‘women’s pages’ in general newspapers, 11 but in January 1923 Rabotnitsa resumed publication on a regular basis. Its sister magazine Krest′yanka began publication in June 1922. Both magazines began as monthlies, but were appearing twice a month by the late 1920s.