By Albert I. King (auth.), Jorge A. C. Ambrósio, Manuel F. O. Seabra Pereira, Fernando Pina da Silva (eds.)
A systematic therapy of present crashworthiness perform within the car, railroad and airplane industries. Structural, external and inside layout, occupant biomechanics, seat and reticence platforms are handled, taking account of statistical information, present laws and cutting-edge layout instrument functions. Occupant kinematics and biomechanics are reviewed, resulting in a easy figuring out of human tolerance to affect and of using anthropometric try dummies and mathematical modelling concepts. varieties of restraining platforms are defined when it comes to impression biomechanics. the cloth and structural behaviour of car elements is mentioned on the subject of crash checking out. quite a few generic concepts for simulating occupants and buildings are provided, specifically using multibody dynamics, finite point equipment and simplified macro-elements, within the context of layout instruments of accelerating complexity, that are used to version either cars and occupants.
Audience: an exceptional reference for researchers, engineers, scholars and all different execs concerned with crashworthiness work.
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Extra resources for Crashworthiness of Transportation Systems: Structural Impact and Occupant Protection
Two types of such injuries were identified: Chance fractures in improperly lap-belted rear seat occupants and spinal fractures due to the shoulder belt. In terms of soft tissue injuries, there is no causal relationship between a single impact to the spine and subsequently diagnosed disc ruptures, if the impact does not result in spinal fractures. 1. INJURY MECHANISMS Of the several major categories of thoracolumbar injuries, the mechanism of injury usually involves an applied force accompanied by a bending or twisting moment.
24. Begeman, PC, King AI, Prasad, P (1973) Spinal loads resulting from -Gx acceleration, Proc. 17th Stapp Conf.. , SAE Paper No. 730977, pp. 343-360. 25. D. Dissertation, Wayne State University. 26. , Assoc. , pp. 139-161. 27. Mertz, HI (1988) Restraint performance of the 1973-76 GM air cushion restraint system, in Automatic Occupant Protection Systems, SAE Special Publication SP-736, SAE Paper No. 61-71. 28. Traynelis, VC and Gold, M (1993) Cervical spine injury in an air bag-equipped vehicle,J.
UOal_1UadG D:~~ :130 111m, :130 • dG 1080 ....... 00 600 800 1000 1200 F......... Drop H~. mm Figure 1. Blunt Impact of the head accelerates the skull Injury of the brain can be caused as its motion lags that of the skull and strains develops in brain tissue and blood vessels. Experimental data are available on the peak force and acceleration related to skull fracture in free-fall, head drop tests. 30 responses in terms of peak force and acceleration are shown in Figure 1 as a function of an equivalent free-fall drop height.