By Adam Ross Solomon (auth.)

This paintings investigates the theoretical and cosmological implications of editing Einstein's concept of basic relativity. It explores periods of changes to gravity: these within which the graviton is given a small mass, and people within which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously damaged. It elucidates the character of cosmological perturbations in theories of huge bimetric gravity, together with a probably lethal instability. Theories of gravity past normal relativity may possibly clarify why the growth of the Universe is accelerating, obviating the necessity for a dismal power, and will additionally have an effect on the evolution of the early Universe. subsequent, it investigates the character of spacetime in huge gravity theories that comprise varied spacetime metrics. finally, the most powerful constraints up to now are put on the scale of Lorentz-violating results within the gravity quarter in the course of inflation.

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**Sample text**

6) is sourced by the stress-energy tensor, defined in Eq. 7). 41) this yields Tμν = ∇μ φ∇ν φ − 1 ∇α φ∇ α φ + V 2 gμν . 43) where ≡ g μν ∇μ ∇ν is the D’Alembertian operator, and Vφ ≡ d V /dφ. The Einstein and Klein-Gordon equations completely determine the behaviour of the two dynamical fields, gμν and φ. Now let us specialise to homogeneous and isotropic cosmology. As argued above, the metric must take the FLRW form. The scalar can only depend on time, φ(x μ ) = φ(t); if it were to depend on space, then it would break homogeneity or isotropy (or both) and communicate that violation to the metric through the Einstein equation.

Astron. Astrophys. (2014). 5076 36. D. Baumann, TASI lectures on inflation. 5424 Chapter 2 Gravity Beyond General Relativity Is this quintessence o[r] dust? 2 At the core of this thesis is the question of modifying general relativity. In the previous chapter, we introduced general relativity and its cosmological solutions, culminating in a discussion of two key aspects of the cosmological standard model: CDM at late times and inflation at early times. In this chapter, we extend that discussion to theories of gravity beyond general relativity, and in particular the theories which will receive our attention in this thesis: massive gravity, massive bigravity, and Einstein-aether theory.

Notice that there is still only one independent degree of freedom. 14 1 Introduction which has, in addition to a decaying mode which we ignore, the growing solution δ ∼ τ 2 ∼ a. 38) During dark energy domination, ρ¯ (which is the density of matter) becomes negligibly small, and the only solutions to Eq. 36) are a decaying mode and δ = const. We see that during the dark energy era, matter stops clustering. This makes intuitive sense: as the expansion of the Universe accelerates, it becomes more and more difficult for matter to gravitationally cluster “against” the expansion.