By Jagan, N. C

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The value of the variable is equal to the sum of the signals coming towards the node. Its value is unaffected by the signals which are going away from the node. 3. Branch : A signal travels along a branch from one node to another node in the direction indicated on the branch. Every branch is associated with a gain constant or transmittance. The signal gets multiplied by this gain as it travels from one node to another. In the example shown in Fig. 36, there are four nodes representing variables xi' x 2' x3 and x 4.

Hence the capacitance ofa tank is given by its area of cross section at a given liquid surface. Gas systems consisting of pressure vessels, connecting pipes, valves etc. may be analysed by using the fundamental law of flow of compressible gases. Again, we have to consider two types of flow: turbulent and laminar flow. , we have 0)=KAY~2g (pl -P2)Y where 0) K ~ flow rate, kg/sec ~ flow constant ..... 55) A ~ area of restriction, m 2 y ~ gas density, kg/m3 p ~ pressure in kg/m2 Turbulent gas flow resistance is therefore given by R= ~ dw sec/m2 .....

33 (c) The transfer function can be simplified as, .. 10 Obtain the overall transfer function of the system shown in Fig. 34 (a). + ~-C(s) R(s)----I Fig. --. C(s) R(s)----{ Fig. -----. C(s) R(s)---i ~-------~~~--------~ G 2G 3 Fig. ' Absorbing the loop with G z G3 and H3, and combining it with block G1 in cascade, we have, + G G G I z 1 R(s) 3 l+G GH - z HI G G 2 3 3 C(s) 3 H2 G3 --+- Fig. 34 (d) Absorbing the loop and combining it with G1 HI H2 The feedback paths G G . and -G have the same inputs and both are subtracted from R(s) at 2 3 3 the summer 1.

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