By N R Galloway,SpringerLink (Online service)

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This is nothing to do with the length of the eyeball but is related to a diminished ability to change the shape of the lens. It is corrected in otherwise normal eyes by using a convex lens. Obviously myopes, hypermetropes and those with no refractive error are all susceptible to presbyopia. 3. Concave lens “with”; convex lens “against”. Try this for yourself in the clinic. 1. A long-sighted person. two. The optic disc of the hypermetrope tends to be smaller and pinker, and in extreme cases, especially in children, the disc can appear to be swollen when in fact it is quite normal.

Lashes are found to be the cause of the patient’s discomfort, it is common practice simply to epilate them with epilating forceps. This produces instant relief, but often the relief is shortlived because the lashes regrow. At this stage, the best treatment is to destroy the lash roots by electrolysis before epilation. Needless to say, before removing lashes it is essential to be familiar with the normal position of the lash line and to realise, for example, that hairs are normally present on the caruncle.

Artificial tear drops are a mainstay in treatment and various types are available, their use depending on which component of the tear film is defective. In severe cases, it might be necessary to consider temporary or permanent occlusion of the lacrimal puncta. 8 is a diagram of the normal eyelid in cross-section. The lids contain two antagonistic voluntary muscles: the more superficial orbicularis oculi, supplied by the seventh cranial nerve, which closes the eye, and the tendon of the levator palpebrae superioris, supplied by the third cranial nerve, which opens the eye.

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