By Lynn S. Lippert PT MS

Lynn Lippert provides a better emphasis onclinical insights and sensible connections toher easy-to-understand, well-organized 4thedition textual content. This exact and thoughtfullyupdated variation is what could be on the heartof your scientific kinesiology path to helpstudents study the mobility of particular jointsin quite a few actions of day-by-day dwelling. The firstseven chapters describe a few of the bodysystems, terminology, and biomechanicalprinciples that might be utilized within the individualjoint chapters that persist with.

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Examples are bones such as the vertebrae and sacrum that do not fit into the other categories. They are also composed of cancellous bone and marrow encased in a thin layer of compact bone. Sesamoid bones, which resemble the shape of sesame seeds, are small bones located where tendons cross the ends of long bones in the extremities. They develop within the tendon and protect it from excessive wear. For example, the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus spans the bottom (plantar surface) of the foot and attaches on the great toe.

Doing a chair or floor push-up causes the joint surfaces of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist to be approximated. As a general rule, traction can assist the mobility of a joint, and approximation can assist the stability of a joint. Shear forces occur parallel to the surface (Fig. 4-10). Shear force results in a glide motion at the joint. Using the positions described with distraction, place your thumbs on the dorsal surfaces and your index fingers on the palmar surfaces of the person’s finger. With the PIP joint slightly flexed, gently move your two hands in an up-and-down motion.

The inner layer is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes the synovial fluid. The articular surface is very smooth and covered with cartilage called hyaline or articular cartilage. The synovial joint is also called a diarthrodial joint because it allows free motion. It is not as stable as the other types of joints but does allow a great deal more motion. Table 3-1 provides a summary of the types of joints. The number of axes, the shape of the joint, and the type of motion allowed by the joint (Table 3-2) could further classify synovial, or diarthrodial, joints.

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