By Charles E. Weaver (Eds.)
This ebook presents a accomplished and important precis of clay mineral literature that pertains to geology and geologic tactics, making it beneficial either as a reference e-book for geologists and as a textual content for the specialist.
The publication encompasses the complete scope of clay-shale geology. An introductory bankruptcy offers easy historical past terminology and type. this is often through a comparatively lengthy bankruptcy at the constitution and composition of a few of the clay minerals. bankruptcy three presents an advent to soil formation, chemical weathering, microbial alteration and the pedogenic formation of clay minerals. Chapters four and five disguise the continental and marine delivery, and deposition of clays. either mechanisms and examples are offered, starting from biodepositional to the nepheloid layer. bankruptcy 6 reports information at the low to extreme temperature formation of clay minerals from marine volcanics, and the expansion of authigenic clays in shallow marine, brackish, and evaporite environments. bankruptcy 7, Diagenesis Metamorphism, covers either burial diagenesis and the techniques happening in the course of the conversion of shale to clay. bankruptcy eight discusses the formation of authigenic-diagenetic formation of clays in sandstones. bankruptcy nine describes the temperal distribution of clay minerals in North and South the US, Europe, Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. The clay suites are with regards to components similar to continental flow, tectonics, weather and atmosphere. the ultimate short bankruptcy covers compaction, lithification and a few normal positive aspects of shales.
The publication is liberally sprinkled with x-ray styles, chemical analyses, and SEM and TEM images, as well as 1000s of examples.
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Additional info for Clays, Muds, and Shales
25 Fig. 2-6. Electron micrograph of allophane (round particles) and imogolite (fibers) from Andept soil. Bar equals 500 A. Courtesy K. Wada. A llophane Allophane has long been described as a fluffy amorphous Si-Al-H ,O precipitate. Kitogawa (1971), Henmi and Wada (1976), and Wada (1979) showed that it consists of 30 to 50 A (diameter) hollow spheres (Fig. 2-6) with walls composed of defect kaolin or imogolite-like layers. The wall structure implies the existence of long-range order in two dimensions, though X-ray diffraction effects do not occur because of the form and fineness of the spheres.
In many kaolinite-rich deposits books or stacks built of crystal plates are relatively abundant (Fig. 8-18). , 1984). A. A Chemistry Kaolinite is by far the most abundant species of the kaolin group. Although hundreds of chemical analyses of this clay have been made, there is little known for certain about the exact composition of most samples. 96% HzO; however, in nature, this exact composition is seldom, if ever, found (Table 2-2). O and Na ,O are usually present. O,. 88 I . Cornwall. A. Zettlitz, Czechoslovakia Macon.
0, and 0, are at the vertices of the tetrahedra. The 0, oxygens overlap with the OH ions. From Smith and Yoder. 1956. Copyright 1961 London Min. Soc. opposing force from the bottom of layer B (Fig. 2-13). A more stable state is reached when the two forces act as nearly as possible in the same direction. "The nearest permissible approach to this, because of the trigonal symmetry. is at 60" to each other; and the resulting force on K,' will be between the two. The B r n ' l B Top c B RcIITcEl mP B TOP C WI'IDY WSIJLTKVT Fig.