By C. Bell

This quantity offers an updated survey of present pondering about the activities of chemical elements within the rules of neuronal behaviour less than common and pathological stipulations. The booklet is split into 4 sections, facing chemical elements concerned with the formation of axon pathways, elements concerned with neuronal survival and specialization in the course of general improvement, elements fascinated by basic upkeep and service of grownup neurons and, eventually, elements which have been implicated as mediators of degenerative adjustments in neurological and neuropsychiatric issues.

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1991) and Sink and Whitington (1991a) have also reported a close association between the axons of embryonic motoneurons and muscles in the Drosophila embryo. As the RP motor axons advance to their target muscles, they traverse three sheets of muscle fibres. Each motor axon branches extensively over these muscles, including non-target muscles. M. Whitington growth cones. , 1991), has been implicated in motor axon guidance. , 1993). 3). Ablation of the target muscles for the RP3 motoneuron causes that neuron to retain inappropriate branches well after the stage when these should have been withdrawn (Sink and Whitington, 1991b).

The relevant gene products have not yet been characterized.

C) Operated hemisegment in another embryo in which the stem cell for the nz3 and nzl,2 neurons had been ablated (asterisks) with the consequent absence of the UP nerve. (D) Control hemisegment in the same embryo as (C). The UP nerve is present, as are the nz3 and nzl,2 neurons. Scale bar = 20^m. Tracings from preparations in which axons and peripheral neurons were stained by injection of fluorescent dyes into early embryonic stem cells (reproduced with permission from Braun and Stent, 1989b). neurons failed to form a lamellipodium, while others formed a short axon which grew down a variety of aberrant pathways.

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