By Regina Smyth

Within the early Nineteen Nineties, aggressive elections within the Russian Federation signaled the top to the authoritarian political process ruled by way of a unmarried political celebration. greater than ten years and lots of elections later, a unmarried get together led via Russian President Vladimir Putin threatens to finish Russia's democratic scan. Russia's event with new elections isn't really specified however it does problem current theories of democratic consolidation through displaying that aggressive elections can't warrantly winning democratic consolidation. This e-book explores the stipulations less than which electoral pageant contributes to democratic improvement through reading impression of elections on democratic consolidation.

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A good deal of work has been done on the relationship between parties and voters. The analysis presented in later chapters focuses on the relationships between candidates and parties. The approach is consistent with theories of party formation describing the process in terms of cooperation among individuals, most notably in the work of Aldrich: My basic argument is that the major political party is the creature of the politicians, the ambitious office seeker and officeholder. They have created and maintained, used 40 P1: ikb 0521846900c02 CUNY245B/Smyth 0 521 84690 0 October 9, 2005 19:17 One Step Forward, Two Steps Back or abuse(d), reformed or ignored the political party when doing so has furthered their goals and ambitions.

They may face very different types of information and appeals that are difficult to weigh against each other. The focus on the relationship between information and coordination is a precursor to addressing the most commonly studied element of electoral infrastructure: political parties. In their ideal types, parties and their brand names embody high levels of information and coordination. Yet, parties often fall short of this ideal in significant ways. The information carried by a party label in the United States is significantly different from 38 P1: ikb 0521846900c02 CUNY245B/Smyth 0 521 84690 0 October 9, 2005 19:17 One Step Forward, Two Steps Back the information carried by party labels across Europe.

However, in new systems, it is important to look at each component to assess the health of the new regime. Information. The concept of information as an element of electoral infrastructure focuses on the persistence of uncertainty in new democratic regimes. This section asks a simple question: What auxiliary assumptions about information and behavior support the electoral model of democratic governance? I argue that this seemingly simple model of responsiveness rests on a number of profound assumptions about electoral infrastructure: 35 P1: ikb 0521846900c02 CUNY245B/Smyth 0 521 84690 0 October 9, 2005 19:17 Candidate Strategies and Electoral Competition the information available to candidates and voters, and the behaviors engendered by this information.

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