By B. Singh, P. Pal Roy, R. B. Singh, A. Bagchi, M. M. Singh

Discussing blasting in flooring excavations and mines, this article covers easy ideas, ordinary strategies, major variables, optimal layout facets, adjustments of a few actual thoughts within the context of mine and floor excavations.

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1). The arms were powered and could be opened and closed from the surface. This design had the advantage of being well suited to elliptical holes, which are common in deviated wells. Additionally, the tool provided a much-needed redundancy in dip computation, because in the previous design malfunctioning or poor recording of one pad rendered the entire log useless. 5 cm). A second electrode on one of the pads allowed correcting for irregular downhole speeds of the tool through cross-correlation with its twin electrode, thereby assuring proper depth positioning of the recording.

54 th Ann Conf Soc Petr Eng: Paper 8362. Tixier MP (1949) Evaluation of permeability from electric-log resistivity gradients. Oil and Gas Jour (June 16, 1949) Waxman MH, Smits LJM (1968) Electrical conduction in oil-bearing shaly sands. J Soc Petr Eng 8: 107 - p2. Weaver CE (1989) Clays, muds and shales. Developments in Sedimentology 44, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Winsauer WO, McCardell WM (1953) Ionic double-layer conductivity in reservoir rocks. Petr Trans AIME 198: 129 -134. Worthington PF (1985) The evolution of shaly-sand concepts in reservoir evaluation.

Newer data indicate that geochemical logging using nuclear spectroscopy logs might be able to provide a fairly good estimate of CEC and thus of Qv (Herron, 1986). 1. The Cation Exchange Capacity CEC as a function of clay type (from Dewan, 1983; Weaver, 1989; van Olphen & Fripiat, 1979). Clay type CEC (meq/lOO g) Chlorite 0 - 10 Kaolinite 2- 7 Illite 10 - 40 (pure: 15) Montmorillonite 70 - 120 The Waxman-Smits model, although widely used by log analysts, has the shortcoming of not considering the geometry of the clay distribution and of considering the same formation factor for brine and clay counterion conduction.

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