By Tsai C.S.

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Therefore it is convenient to describe a structure with torsion angle ranges. The ranges commonly used in organic chemistry (Klyne and Prelog, 1960) are syn (~0°), anti (~180°), ±synclinal (~±60°) and ±anticlinal (~±120°). The notation, cis (~0°), trans (~180°), ±gauche (~±60°), is frequently used in crystallographic and spectroscopic literature. 3 NONCOVALENT INTERACTIONS Each newly synthesized biopolymer chain in an undefined structure folds spontaneously to assume its unique native structure.

G. pppA for adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP). 3. Sequences of nucleotides in nucleic acids are written with one-letter symbols starting with the 5′-terminus at the left toward 3′-terminus at the right. Deoxyribonucleotides in DNA is prefixed with d. If it is not known whether a residue is A or G, the appropriate abbreviation for purine is R; Y is used for pyrimidine, C or T. 4. Special symbols (incompletely specified bases in restriction sequences) include: B for G/T/C (not A), D for A/G/T (not C), H for A,T,C (not G), V for A/G/C (not T) and N for A/C/G/T.

The long side chain of Met is nonpolar. It has a rather flexible side chain containing one sulfur atom in a thioether bond. Met provides the methyl group for many biological methylation reactions via formation of S-adenosylmethionine. 86. g. glycosidases). The free acid can act as a proton donor and the anion can act as a proton acceptor in acid- and base-catalyzed reactions respectively. Asp and Glu are negatively charged residues at physiological pH and are found at protein surface. They can be effective chelators of certain metal ions.

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