By Janet M. Decker

Specialists within the box of microbiology inform the nice detective tales of the way many of the world's best-known lethal disease-causing microbes have been first remoted, pointed out, and studied. Readers find out how those lethal viruses and micro organism reason disorder and what steps were taken to eliminate them. most typically linked to animals reminiscent of farm animals, the infectious illness anthrax lately entered the highlight for its strength use as a weapon of organic war opposed to people.

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Extra info for Anthrax (Deadly Diseases and Epidemics)

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PA binds to the membranes of infected human or animal cells. A host cell enzyme then cuts off the tip of the PA molecule. Seven trimmed PA molecules join to form a round pore in the membrane of the host cell through which the other toxins can en ter. Although PA helps the toxins to kill cells, it is called a “protective” antigen because when it is injected into laboratory animals or humans, it acts as a vaccine to protect against future infection with Bacillus anthracis. Lethal Factor (LF) is produced by Bacillus anthracis in the macrophage vesicle.

Some zoonotic microbes are spread from the digestive tract of animals to the digestive tract of humans by means of contaminated food or water. These include the bacteria Escherichia coli 0157, Salmonella, and Listeria, and the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium , all of which cause vomiting and diarrhea. Tuberculosis can be transmitted from cows to humans in milk from infected cows. If a pregnant woman changes the litter box of a cat infected with the parasite Toxoplasma (which the cat acquired from eating infected wild animals) and does not wash her hands thoroughly, she may become infected.

Eating infected meat is another source of human infection. Direct human-to-human spread of anthrax does not occur. Human anthrax infections occur in three forms: skin (cutaneous), digestive (gastrointestinal), and respiratory (inhalational). CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX Worl dwi de , 95 percent of human anthrax cases are c u t a n e o u s , or skin infections. Bet ween 1955 and 2000, 203 human 32 ZOONOSES Over 200 diseases can spread from animals to humans. Some spread only between humans and other primates.

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