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Variations of such properties may yield an electrical analogue signal directly related to a certain pollutant concentration. 520 MODERN METHODS FOR AIR POLLUTION MONITORING The development of the instruments for air pollution monitoring is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Instrumentation for air-pollutants analysis First-generation P -► solution -► reaction -► discrimination -► optoelectric -* electrical analogue transducer signal Second-generation P -► reaction -► discrimination -► optoelectric transducer -> electrical analogue signal Third-generation P -*· chemoelectric transducer -*· electrical analogue signal The trend to improve instrumentation aims to achieve the following features: (1) simplicity of concentration and operation; (2) reliability and reproducibility of operation over long time intervals; (3) adequate sensitivity to meet the requirements of specific applications; (4) specific response to pollutant or pollutants of interest.

Lenihan, H. Smith and W. Harvey, Brit. Dent. J. 135, 365 (1973). In vivo Neutron Activation Analysis. IAEA: Vienna (1973). A generally optimistic view of body composition studies. J. M. A. Lenihan, D. Cornar, R. Riviere and C. Kellershohn, J. Nucl. M ed. 9, 110 (1968). K. Boddy, R. M. Harden and W. D. Alexander, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 28, 294 (1964). B. Carlmark and P. Reizenstein, in reference 5, p 113. H. E. Palmer and W. B. Nelp, in reference 5, p 127. G. J. Peterson, in Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences, p 323.

For analytical applica­ tions the peak emission band at 394 nm can be resolved by use of interference filters. Because two sulphur atoms are required to produce one excited molecule, the light intensity emitted is proportional to the sulphur concentra­ tion squared. nm Figure 1. Chemiluminescence spectrum for sulphur (S2) Emission from the flame itself produces a background signal that limits sensitivity. This background can be reduced by shielding the flame and by reducing the flame temperature.

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