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He has developed from blind obedience to responsibility, that is from heteronomy to autonomy. He is in Piaget's 'stage of formal operations'. 2 Kohlberg's stages of moral development Kohlberg has extended Piaget's research and has elaborated on his theory to include three levels of moral development instead of two. Each of Kohlberg's three levels includes two stages. (Hurlock 1978: 391; Fischer & Lazerson 1984: 535 - 538). The three levels are called the preconventional level, the conventional level and the principled level or post-conventional level.

Pavlov explained the process as follows: The normal flow of saliva when food is presented is a reflex action which can be summarized thus: Unconditioned stimulus (US) —> Unconditioned response (UR) (food in mouth) (flow of saliva) However, when the animal learns to associate the sound of the bell with food soon to be eaten, and begins to salivate before food is actually put in his mouth, the S-R association becomes: Conditioned stimulus (CS) —> Conditioned response (CR) (sound of bell) (advanced flow of saliva) The learning occurred because of reinforcement, ie because food was always given after the bell was rung.

Furthermore, while each stage is delineated by major intellectual activity, aspects of other stages will also be present. 8 Language development Intellectual (or cognitive) development is linked to language development. Language ensures that children are not bound to their immediate sensory environment. They start developing some mental images, and this is enhanced by the growth of vocabulary. The average two-year-old understands some 200 words, while the average five-year-old understands 2 000 words.

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