By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Commission on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Toxicology, Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Within the Bhopal catastrophe of 1984, nearly 2,000 citizens dwelling close to a chemical plant have been killed and 20,000 extra suffered irreversible harm to their eyes and lungs following the unintentional free up of methyl isocyanate. This tragedy served to concentration overseas cognizance at the want for governments to spot dangerous elements and help neighborhood groups in making plans easy methods to care for emergency exposures. considering that 1986, the U.S. Environmental safety company has been tasked with deciding on tremendous detrimental ingredients and, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency administration employer and the dep. of Transportation, support neighborhood emergency reaction planners. The nationwide Advisory Committee on Acute publicity instruction degrees for damaging elements used to be validated in 1995 to strengthen acute publicity guide degrees (AEGLs) for prime precedence poisonous chemical substances which may be published into the air from injuries at chemical crops, garage websites, or in the course of transportation. This publication stories toxicity files on 5 chemical compounds - chlorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, toluene, and uranium hexafluoride - for his or her clinical validity, comprehensives, inner consistency, and conformance to the 1993 guidance file.

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TABLE 1–7 Summary of Acute Sublethal Inhalation Data in Rats Concentration Exposure Effect Species (ppm) Time Rat 15,302 10 min No deaths; oxidative changes in brain Rat 359 4h No deaths; cyanosis, tremors, lacrimation, salivation, semiprostration, initial weight loss followed by normal gain, reddish-brown perineal area Rat 150 8h No deaths; 41% methemoglobin 150 12 h No deaths; 46% Rat methemoglobin Reference Kakkar et al. du Pont de Nemours 1982a Kim and Carlson 1986 Kim and Carlson 1986 About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files.

5 to 1 h without immediate or late sequalae, and 100 to 160 ppm was the maximum concentration that could be inhaled for 1 h without serious disturbance. In studies of accidents with unknown exposure concentrations, methemoglobin levels of up to 72% were measured. Recoveries occurred with a minimum of medical intervention following cessation of exposure. There is no conclusive evidence from studies of cancers in dye workers that aniline is the causative agent. Two known metabolites of aniline induced sister chromatid exchange in the single study with cultured human fibroblasts.

1972). There was no more variation in methemoglobin levels among the cells from different humans than among the cells from different rats. 3. Structure-Activity Relationships As previously noted, many aromatic amines and their metabolites and derivatives are methemoglobin-generating chemicals (Smith 1996). About this PDF file: This new digital representation of the original work has been recomposed from XML files created from the original paper book, not from the original typesetting files. Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted.

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