By JANET GOLDEN

A Social heritage of rainy Nursing in the USA: From Breast to Bottle examines the intersection of clinical technological know-how, social conception, and cultural practices as they formed kin between rainy nurses, physicians, and households from the colonial interval throughout the 20th century. It explores how americans used rainy nursing to resolve toddler feeding difficulties, indicates why rainy nursing grew to become arguable as motherhood slowly grew to become medicalized, and elaborates how the improvement of medical toddler feeding eradicated rainy nursing by way of the start of the 20th century. Janet Golden's research contributes to our figuring out of the cultural authority of clinical technological know-how, the function of physicians in shaping baby rearing practices, the social development of motherhood, and the profound dilemmas of sophistication and tradition that performed out within the deepest house of the nursery.

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For a discussion of maternal mortality and the problem of counting deaths in cases of stillbirths and in instances when the mother died in the weeks following pregnancy see Roger Schofield, "Did the Mothers Really Die? Three Centuries of Mortality in 'The World We Have Lost,' " in Lloyd Bonfield, Richard M. , The World We Have Gained: Histories of Population and Social Structure (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986), pp. 231-60. 37 On lactation see Derrick B. Jelliffe and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe, Human Milk in the Modem World: Psychosocial, Nutritional, and Economic Significance (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978); and Ruth A.

Relationships in the nursery spanned a vast social continuum. At one extreme lay the plantation mistress and the slave who suckled her baby. At the opposing end was the nursing mother who suckled the hungry child of a friend, neighbor, or relative. Between the slave and the friend was the paid wet nurse, characterized in the medical and religious literature as a poor woman with few virtues other than her milk. The stereotype was grounded in the realities of female domestic employment and by the existence of poor women who squeezed out a living taking in foundlings.

However, the existing evidence points to the use of lactation as a restraint on pregnancy, not on sexual relations. 56 53 Lawrence, Breastfeeding, pp. 450—7. The contraceptive effects of lactation are influenced by the mother's nutrition and also depend on whether the infant is completely breast-fed or receives supplemental nutrition. 54 Cited in David Leverenz, The Language of Puritan Feeling: An Exploration in Literature, Psychology, and Social History (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1980), pp.

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