By American Academy of Ophthalmology, John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a pragmatic method of the assessment and administration of orbital and eyelid problems, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present info on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and anxious stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key points of orbital, eyelid and facial surgery.
Upon crowning glory of part 7, readers could be capable to:
Describe the traditional anatomy and serve as of orbital and periocular tissues
Choose applicable exam ideas and protocols for diagnosing problems of the orbit, eyelids, and lacrimal system
Describe sensible and beauty symptoms within the surgical administration of eyelid and periorbital stipulations
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System PDF
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 7: Orbit Eyelids and Lacrimal System
Dutton JJ. Radiology of the Orbit and Visual Pathways. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. Wi rtschafter JD, Berman EL, McDonald CS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed To mography. Ophthalmology Monograph 6. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1992. Ultrasonography Orbital ultrasonography may be used to examine patients with orbital disorders. The size, shape, and position of normal and abnormal orbital tissues can be determined by means of contemporary ultrasound techniques.
For older microphthalmic children, craniofacial techniques have been used to reposition and resize the orbit. Such repairs are complex, as noted in the following discussion of craniofacial clefting. Microphthalmia with orbital cyst results from the failure of the choroidal fissure to close in the embryo. This condition is usually unilateral but may be bilateral. The presence of an orbital cyst may be beneficial for stimulating normal growth of the involved orbital bone and eyelids. In some cases, the orbital cyst may have to be removed to allow for fitting of an ocular prosthesis.
The long ciliary nerves pass by the ciliary ganglion and enter the sclera, where they extend anteriorly to supply the iris, cornea, and ciliary muscle. The muscles of facial expression, including the orbicularis oculi, procerus, corrugator superciliaris, and frontalis muscles, receive their motor supply by way of branches of CN VII (the facial nerve) that penetrate the undersurface of each muscle. The parasympathetic innervation, which controls accommodation, pupillary con striction, and lacrimal gland stimulation, follows a complicated course.