By Neal H. Atebara, MD

Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. provides optics of the human eye; uncomplicated innovations of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and get in touch with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, category of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluation and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

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2nd ed. St Lo uis, MO: Elsevier-Mosby; 2007. Campbell CJ. Physiological Optics. Hage rstown, MD: Harper & Row; 1974. Rubin ML, Walls GL. FUlldamelltals a/Visual Sciellce. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas; 1969. CHAPTER 2 Geometric Optics Geometric optics is the study of light and images using geometric principles. In contrast, physical optics emphasizes the wave nat ure of light, and quantum optics (not covered in this text) emphasizes the particle nature of light and the interaction of light and matter.

H. ) Compared with the pinhole, the lens allows much more light from each object point to traverse the lens and ul timately contribute to the image. Generally, lenses produce better images than do pinholes. However, lenses do have some disadvantages. Place a lens at a fIxed distance from the candle and note that the image appears in only 1 location. In pinhole imaging, an image appears at any location behind the aperture. Changi ng th e distance between an object and a lens causes the distance between the image and the lens to change, but the image still fo rms in only one location.

Recall th at energy is work. and power is the rate at which work is done. One joule = 1 watt x 1 second. or 1 W = 1 lis. The tissue effect is then determ ined by the fo cal poi nt spot size. which d etermines ene rgy density and irradia nce (or. less prope rly stated. "power density"). In ophthalmic lasers. spot size is conventionall y given as the diame ter. Thus. a 50-~m spot size has an area ofn (25 x 10-')' cm'. or abo ut 2 x 10- 5 cm'. Directionality. coherence. polarization. and. to some degree.

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