By John Bryan Holds, MD

Emphasizing a pragmatic method of analysis and remedy, this quantity summarizes present info on congenital, infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, and hectic stipulations of the orbit and adnexa. Highlights comprise wide dialogue of thyroid-associated orbitopathy, lymphoproliferative problems, and eyelid neoplasms. comprises up to date references and diverse new colour photographs.

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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)

Example text

The anterior and middle air cells drain into the middle meatus; the posterior air cells, into the superior meatus. The ethmoid air cells are present at birth and expand as the child grows. Orbital cellulitis is most Figure 1-10 Relationship of the orbits to the paranasal sinus; M5, maxillary sinus; 55, sphenoid sinus. sinuses: F5, frontal sinus; E5, ethmoid CHAPTER 1: Orbital Anatomy. 19 frequently secondary to ethmoid sinusitis spreading through the lamina papyracea into the orbit. The sphenoid sinus evaginates from the posterior nasal roof to pneumatize the sphenoid bone.

The visualization of tumors that are highly vascular (eg, meningioma) or those with altered vascular permeability is improved by the use of intravenous contrast-enhancing agents. CT has resolution and tissue-contrast capabilities allowing imaging of soft tissues, bones, contrast -containing blood vessels, and foreign bodies. Orbital images can be obtained in the axial plane, parallel to the course of the optic nerve, or in the coronal plane, showing the eye, optic nerve, and extraocular muscles in cross section.

Of ocular anatomy, see BCSC Section 2, Fun- Dutton J). Atlas of Clinical and Surgical Orbital Anatomy. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1994. Jordan DR, Anderson RA. Surgical Anatomy of the Ocular Adnexa: A Clinical Approach. Ophthalmology Monograph 9. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology; 1996. Zide BM, Jelks GW, eds. Surgical Anatomy of the Orbit. New York: Raven; 1985. CHAPTER 2 Evaluation of Orbital Disorders The evaluation of an orbital disorder should distinguish orbital from periorbital and intraocular lesions.

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